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Post Fukushima. Where Now for Nuclear Power?

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mattar, do you realize that those photos prove nothing..assumptions against assumptions.

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mattar, do you realize that those photos prove nothing..assumptions against assumptions.

If only it were just photos......no increases in radiation from reactors, temperature, pressure, noble gasses......no steam explosions....no seismic activity. So no evidence of a china syndrome at Unit 3. What walker doesn't realise, despite me asking him to look at a diagram of the design, Fukushima is not like Chernoble, Chernoble didn't have an outer containment, that's why they had to tunnel underneath it and lay concrete. Fukushima already has that in place. Unit 1 already suffered a melt though - whats left of the reactor is sitting on the concrete base covered by water. Yet he expects us to believe that the core from Unit 3 has burrowed into the water table ROFL.

What should worry anyone living in Russia is there are still 10 RBMK rectors in use there. There is no outer containment on that design, it was decided that full containment would be too costly. They have done some cosmetic work but nothing comprehensive.

Walker also claimed problems at Unit 2 - what he doesn't seem to know despite having conducted much research is they opened the airlock on the containment in June 2011. So we have a run away nuclear meltdown there too and they have workers, instruments inside with the containment airlock doors open?

http://photo.tepco.co.jp/en/date/2011/201106-e/110620-01e.html

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari

If only it were just photos......no increases in radiation from reactors, temperature, pressure, noble gasses......no steam explosions....no seismic activity. So no evidence of a china syndrome at Unit 3...

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_130724_04-e.pdf

Once again and as I have kept saying; if you only look at the press releases you only get what they say in the press releases, with all its attendent spin. The fact that you then spin it even further, leads me to suspect your motives, as others on the forum have communicated to me.

Kind Regards walker

Edited by walker

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The operating floors of the reactors (5F level, top floor) are the most contaminated because that is where the pressure containment vessels were vented during the initial accident and water boiled off the top of the fuel rod storage pond. Those readings have been present since the accident and have not increased - if you look back through the survey maps and measurements taken from debris removed from those areas you will see it averages around 700 mSv/h and has done so for 2 years.

Carry on gossiping by PM, doesn't worry me, my only motive is accuracy and truth. The media blackout/fukushima china syndrome conspiracy theory is well known and widely debunked. Conspiritards were also saying the contaminated chunks of steel and concrete removed from there were fuel rods even after it was pointed out that the peak reading of 540mSv/h wasn't high enough for that to be true.

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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The operating floors of the reactors (5F level, top floor) are the most contaminated because that is where the pressure containment vessels were vented during the initial accident. Those readings have been present since the accident and have not increased - if you look back through the survey maps and measurements taken from debris removed from those areas you will see it averages around 500 mSv/h and has done so for 2 years.

Carry on gossiping by PM, doesn't worry me, my only motive is accuracy and truth.

Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari. You are falling for the spin hook line and sinker so much so that your mind is censoring what your eyes see, or as I say your motives are in question:

Look at sample points 18, 19 and 20 though others are also above your and the press releases 500 mSv/h.

By the way did you note the reading from Unit one in 2011? And did you also note it was not made public until recently? Best to let lots of bad news out at once, is a typical PR tactic.

By the way several people recorded this independently over the last few years.

Kind Regards walker

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Hi all

First of all I refer you to the 30th of November assesment in 2011 that was not made public at the time:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/images/handouts_111130_04-e.pdf

where Tepco admit that as well as the core melt down, a melt through at Unit 1 occured, they even made assements of the cores effect on the concrete:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/images/handouts_111130_08-e.pdf

Here is what the press release said when they got round to telling the world over 6 months later:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/11051509-e.html

And the process they went through to change what they new, to what they released as PR is here:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/interim/images/111202_16-e.pdf

Evidence is now stacking up that the more dangerous Unit 3 also melted through its containment. Tepco could never find any evidense of water or the core in monitors because they stoped giving readings, Tepco and could not place monitors on the cores as the radiation levels were too high. In is generally feared by those monitoring Fukushima that the core melted through, due to evidense of sudden loss of water and dramatic cooling, basically the core fell out of the bottom of the reactor and there was noting left to monitor.

Note The escaping steam is flowing up the outside of the Reactor.

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_130724_04-e.pdf

Also staff on the day that the instruments stoped giving readings reported loud vibrations and sounds from below the ground.

Throughout Tepco spun the story as these papers make clear.

These documents were available via varous sites on the Web if Mattar_Thakari had cared to actualy look. Recently much more has been made public by those independently monitoring Fukushima as Tepco have not been fullfilling their public duty.

Kind Regards walker

Edited by walker

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Read them all, you said there was a 'china syndrome', you have just posted evidence to show there isn't. So you retract this then?:

It would apear that at least one of the cores has gone China Syndrome, despite millions of gallons being pumped into them, probably unit 3 for which there is no reported level of water. Reactor 2 is also probably fully breached as it has only half metre of water in the bottom despite continuous pumping of water into it.

If you look back in the thread you will see that several of us predicted that one or more of the cores could go China Sydrome, for those of you who do not understand what this means here is a quick simplified video.

There are indications in the fact that steam is pouring out of the top of the reactor building, and that radiation levels are aproaching those seen in 2011, that the worst case scenario has happened and that the corrium has achieved criticality again.

Let me guess, this whole argument arose because you didn't know what the definition of 'china syndrome' is? It means the melted core has gone right through the containment, foundations and into the sub soil/water table.

Also:

1. Steam is not pouring out of the top of the reactor. If the steam was escaping directly from the corium - radiation levels of 563 mSv/h are absurdly low.

2. Radiation levels are stable at the levels they have been since the accident.

3. There are no noble gas increases which would indicate resumed criticality.

4. No increase in temperature in reactor pressure vessels or reactor containment vessels.

5. No increase in pressure in the reactor containment vessels.

6. With the amount of ground water present there would be a huge steam explosion from below ground within a few months of the accident, it's now years later.

7. You have not explained a mechanism for regaining criticality, nuclear experts have said it's unlikely, boric acid (neutron absorber) was pumped into the reactors to prevent this in addition to melted control rods being part of the mix. Remember you have to satisfy several different criteria to achieve criticality, sufficient mass is only 1.

China syndrome

noun

a hypothetical nuclear-reactor accident in which the fuel would melt through the floor of the containment structure and burrow into the earth.

Origin:

1970–75; from the jocular notion that the hot reactor core would pass through to the other side of the earth

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Tharkari

...1. Steam is not pouring out of the top of the reactor. If the steam was escaping directly from the corium - radiation levels of 563 mSv/h are absurdly low...

Are you reading the papers I am posting?

The recent radiation levels on the "Measurement results of ambient dose" table at points:

18 = 1590 mSv/h

19 = 2170 mSv/h

20 = 1330 mSv/h

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_130724_04-e.pdf

You do realise the measuring device is 1M above the steam venting from around the reactor?

" Measurement point: Approx. 1m from the floor surface on the fifth floor"

Kind Regards walker

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Yes - that isn't where the steam was observed, the reading in the steam is 562 mSV/h, if that were steam from a critical corium you would expect 10,000's mSV/h. It would contain all sorts of isotopes and would trigger all the detectors all over the plant. That isn't happening, there is also the thermal survey which indicates the opposite of what you say, if that was a steam leak from a critical mass boiling water, wouldn't you expect the temperature to be higher, the temperature survey around the shield plug joint showed a lower 24.7 degrees C, it's simply evaporation from a warm surface in high humidity? Can you also explain why the steam stopped on August 7th and has not been seen for the past 6 days?:

130724_04.jpg

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari.

The reaction as YOU describe it is exactly what you expect in such a corrium reaction happening underground. Radiation and heat spikes are a signature of a melt through "China Syndrome" event.

If we are talking about corrium both nuclear chemistry and the corrium flow and mix characteristics are very complex.

The reason that "spent fuel" is removed from reactors is not because it does not supply energy in fact it becomes more energetic, providing more heat and because the fuel rods are distorted and full of elements that are more reactive than Uranium, the so called daughter products of the nuclear fission such as: plutonium, trans uranics like americium and short half life isotopes of sub Uranic elements such as cesium, and strontium; all of which adds up to fuel rods that are less controlable and more likely to prompt criticality.

"Spent Fuel" is just marketing speak to hide the fact that the fuel becomes more dangererous the longer it is in the reactor. Why do you think the atomic energy commision, the USA, Russia, et al is more worried about spent fuel rods in Iran than the fresh Uranium fuel rods they are willing to supply?

Corrium is like spent fuel on steroids, and just as likely to rage out at any point. The chemistry makes for very complex nuclear reactions. In a reactor, fuel pellets are seperated precisely by the design of the rods and the reactor so as to make the nuclear reaction controlable and held on a knife edge. Corrium is the precise opposite. Seperated fuel pellets have melted together to form complex masses and geometries. In corrium it is quite possible to have critical mass form blow apart and reform. Corrium is a completley chaotic and highly unpredictable nuclear reactor on the verge of becoming a very dirty nuclear bomb.

You then mix in concrete, geology and pockets of underground water some close to the corrium and some heated by conduction from multiple core runnoffs near by but perhaps not in contact, perhaps not even iradiated. BUT steam is the tell, steam means heat, heat from a corrium core; perhaps deep underground or in the concrete of the reactor base or pooled between the concrete and the rock but either way the genie is out of the bottle. The only possible source of that heat is the corrium.

here have a read:

http://mragheb.com/NPRE%20457%20CSE%20462%20Safety%20Analysis%20of%20Nuclear%20Reactor%20Systems/China%20Syndrome.pdf

Kind Regards walker

Edited by walker

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Stop trolling walker, even the most basic research would tell you that is 100% wrong - was that just a page turning exercise to hide your errors, new page, fresh pseudoscientific nonsense?

Anyway the steam that got you so worried stopped 6 days ago, no radiation or heat spikes so simmer down lol.

As I said you need several conditions to achieve criticality, corium is not a pure product, it contains control rods and other debris along with boric acid in this case, the geometry is also unlikely to be correct so what you say is a very remote possibility.

1. Steam is not pouring out of the top of the reactor. If the steam was escaping directly from the corium - radiation levels of 563 mSv/h are absurdly low, if that were steam from a critical corium you would expect several 10,000's mSV/h.

2. Radiation levels are stable at the levels they have been since the accident.

3. There are no noble gas increases which would indicate resumed criticality.

4. No increase in temperature in reactor pressure vessels or reactor containment vessels.

5. No increase in pressure in the reactor containment vessels.

6. With the amount of ground water present there would be a huge steam explosion from below ground within a few months of the accident, it's now years later.

7. You have not explained a mechanism for regaining criticality, nuclear experts have said it's unlikely, boric acid (neutron absorber) was pumped into the reactors to prevent this in addition to melted control rods being part of the mix. Remember you have to satisfy several different criteria to achieve criticality, sufficient mass is only 1.

Also in the link you posted, that's an RBMK reactor design with no secondary or tertiary containment such as Chernobyl - you were correct with this post which shows the correct design and therefore the unlikely event of a 'china syndrome':

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/images/handouts_111130_04-e.pdf

220px-Reaktor.svg.png

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

As well as the increasing incedense of staff irradiation by ground dust away from the the reactors, this because the water that is being pumped into the reactors and is pouring out the bottom of them, why is there holes in the bottom of the of the reactors Mattar_Thakari?

This then means the whole of the ground below the reactors is becoming saturated with Radioactive mud which then turns to dust and gets blown around everywhere; and more importantly it is destabalising the foundations of the already badly damaged and most dangerous structure at Fukushima, the terifying, and massivley over reracked, "spent fuel" pool No.4. No containment, more fuel than any of the rest of Fukushima and only a burst pipe away from recriticality.

For those who do not know the whole Fukushima facility is sinking in to this radioactive mud.

This is all something Mattar_Thakari fails to grasp; I will ask him again; at least the third time I think, others can go back through the posts and look: "Where is the water pumped into reactors 1 to 3 going Mattar_Thakari?"

The discovery that fresh water 10 km away is now so iradiated it sparked an alert higher than the one it was suposed to prevent, when it was used to keep down the ever increasing levels of radiaoactive dust, and help prevent heat stroke among the staff in radiation suits, all seem to be evidense that the aquifer has been breached and is being poluted by one or more cores that have gone China Syndrome. The workers sprayed with the water from 10km away from the plant had such high readings that they had to undergo full body scans and are already 2.5 times higher than their maximum radiation dose after just a few seconds of exposure.

Why are the levels of radiation higher in the ocean than the supposed and reported groundwater radiation levels by the Tepco press office?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6HwHGVafj4

Kind Regards walker

Edited by walker

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@Walker.

lol yet more nonsense.

130529_01s.gif

The water in the tank farm is filtered, desalinated and recirculated through the reactors - it isn't all running into the ground - told you that and it's freely available information, no doubt it will take several pages before you understand it.

The 300 tons of groundwater (as explained in your own video???) is a natural water course that flows through the soil there and always has, it varies with rainfall and the tide (see above image). The problem is it's picking up contamination from around the buildings that was washed into the soil. It is also entering the building basements through cracks and washing contamination out. There was a leak in the torus at Unit 2 that was plugged and several other leaks in pipes were solved by closing valves. You can see the basement of Unit 2 here:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSIThIssbmM

Note the marks - water level has reduced and appears stable - that red structure is the torus/suppression pool.

Even if they were pumping and losing 300 tons of water per day it would simply flow into the sea - the plant can't sink into mud lol it's geologically impossible for the site.

As for the radiation levels in the port - check the latest sample data. It's below 100Bq/l.

The fuel storage pool at Unit 4 is full becuase they defueled the reactor before the earthquake. Latest survey of the pool shows no problems? They are working there and have removed the reactor containment vessel cap and reactor pressure vessel cap:

http://enformable.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Fukushima-Daiichi-Reactor-4-Photos-courtesy-of-TEPCO.jpg (2273 kB)

If it were unstable they wouldn't be able to do that, would they?

RE tank leak: Cheap bund with drain left open - bizarre? Construction looks very temporary for something that will be in use for many years? Now they have a few hundred tons of contaminated soil to dispose of!

Found this that some might find interesting - opening Unit 4 Reactor at Fukushima Diani and removing fuel rods. Plant is similar design to Daiichi so shows various containments/components being removed and what the reactor core looks like:

Removing concrete plug - the yellow dome underneath is the reactor containment vessel (RCV) - that is unbolted and removed next, the the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), followed by steam separators to expose the core (notice workers duck behind barriers at one point):

Detail: Unbolting and removing the lid of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) - the RPV has been completely filled with water to shield the workers from the exposed core. Later this whole space is filled with water to allow the fuel assemblies to be removed to the storage pool under water:

Removing fuel from reactor core to the storage pool:

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari

Once again what amount of water is injected in to:

Unit 1: ? It is around 5.5 tons per hour

Unit 2: ? It is around 8.5 tons per hour

Unit 3: ? It is around 8.5 tons per hour

as of about March 2012 for an average. I will give you those for free!

So a total of 22.5 tons of radioactive water per hour.

8765.81 the number of hours in a year.

Say 2 years, yes I know we are talking March or April of 2011 when the pumping and leaking began but let us be conservative and ignore that little extra.

We have not dealt with the "Spent Fuel" (more radioactive than when in went into the reactor) rods in the now open air radioactivity pools but again let us be conservative and ignore all that radioactive water leaking out of those seives too.

And let us ignore all the Tsunami water in the basements because I am feeling generous Mattar_Thakari

Your homework for today Mattar_Thakari is:

a) What amount of water is then passed through and on to the holding tanks?

b) Do the figures add up Mattar_Thakari?

c) For bonus points! The amount of water pumped/injected into the reactors has been increasing since the accedent began, why would that be Mattar_Thakari?

You may like to look at attachment 1 to this report from which to get some of your answers:

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu13_e/images/130821e0301.pdf

Kind Regards walker

Edited by walker

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Your basic problem is you can't understand what you read, they don't pass all the injected water back to the storage farm. It is recirculated through a heat exchanger. There is also a large tank called a condenser for additional storage, it used to be part of the steam system but they are using that for storage now. Your logic is deeply flawed.

I think you may have got a little caught up with press reports that describe the natural flow of ground water as a leak? Water can get into a basement through two different routes - it can leak from above or groundwater can flow in from below. When earthquakes occur, the level of the land can rise or fall. At Fukushima the entire coast dropped a few feet, causing the ground water level to rise.

The other thing you have overlooked is evaporation, the spent fuel pools can evaporate up to 90tons of water each, every day. That needs to be replaced. Get it - Much of your missing water evaporates.

Regarding open air radioactivity pools ROFL. Did you watch any of the videos above? Water acts as a neutron moderator - you will notice workers standing right above the exposed reactor core when the lid is taken off - they can do this because it is covered by water. There have been several incidents over the years of workers falling into storage pools with only a small increased radiation dose - unless you come into close contact with the fuel assemblies, water moderation keeps you safe.

Guess you haven't heard of nuclear divers who conduct maintenance in reactor and storage pools?

nuclea3.jpg

Diver above is in the reactor pool working on the containment O-rings.

http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/business/technology/why-some-divers-want-to-work-in-nuclear-reactors-468168/

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

As I kept pointing out, Fukushima is leaking like seive, and those tasked with watching have decided enough is enough and begun spilling the beans.

22 August 2013 Last updated at 10:32

Fukushima leak is 'much worse than we were led to believe'

By Matt McGrath

Environment correspondent, BBC News

A nuclear expert has told the BBC that he believes the current water leaks at Fukushima are much worse than the authorities have stated.

Mycle Schneider is an independent consultant who has previously advised the French and German governments.

He says water is leaking out all over the site and there are no accurate figures for radiation levels.

Meanwhile the chairman of Japan's nuclear authority said that he feared there would be further leaks.

The ongoing problems at the Fukushima plant increased in recent days when the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco) admitted that around 300 tonnes of highly radioactive water had leaked from a storage tank on the site.

Moment of crisis

The Japanese nuclear energy watchdog raised the incident level from one to three on the international scale that measures the severity of atomic accidents...

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23779561

As always follow the link to the original article in full

Kind Regards walker

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Lol what a badly written piece, no empirical data, ignores facts like the barriers, ground freezing project, ground water pumping and much else.

I'm starting to lose faith in the quality of BBC reporting, it's obvious the two contributors are biased and lack basic knowledge.

No doubt summer weather / school holidays are having their impact. It's known as the silly season.

Mycle Schneider is a barely camoflaged anti-nuclear acitivist - nice try there Walker, now find something evidence based.

Hint - find a scientist in the correct field without a ponytail who doesn't say things like, "place is leaking all over!" lol.

If you don't ask the scientists who are experts in the field you get loony tunes responses like this.

I suspect if you asked a geometrician about Fukushima he would say,"It's all fucked up, buildings no longer a convex polyhedron bounded by six quadrilateral faces, we're all gonna die!".

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

Fukushima radiation levels 18 times higher than previously thought

Operator of Japanese nuclear power plant claims there has been no leak but has yet to discover cause of radiation spike

Justin McCurry in Tokyo

theguardian.com, Sunday 1 September 2013 10.22 BST

Radiation levels 18 times higher than previously reported have been found near a water storage tank at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, prompting fresh concern over safety at the wrecked facility.

The plant's operator, Tokyo Electric Power (Tepco), said radiation near the bottom of the tank measured 1,800 millisieverts an hour – high enough to kill an exposed person in four hours.

Tepco said water levels inside the tank had not changed, indicating there had not been a leak. But the firm said it had yet to discover the cause of the radiation spike.

Last month Tepco said another storage tank of the same design as the container causing concern this weekend had leaked 300 tonnes of radioactive water, possibly into the sea...

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/sep/01/fukushima-radiation-levels-higher-japan

As always follow the the link to the original article in full

Before this discovery TEPCO and the Japanese monitoring organisation had raised the disaster level to 3, on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale for radiological releases.

Various international monitoring organisations are discussing the need for raising the disaster level to 5 on the IAEA scale.

It appears that much of the monitoring equipment used by TEPCO is not capable of monitoring radiation levels above 100 m/Sv, 50 m/Sv is the maximum a worker is supposed to recieve. And that workers and visitors may have been exposed to levels of radiation far higher than they thought.

Kind Regards walker

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I did wonder if that report would excite you! Did you know the entire world's press got that wrong because they don't understand radiation measurement and different types of emission? I wonder how many will print a retraction? Journalists eh? ROFL

Announcements

News related to TEPCO(Sep 01,2013)

Explanation regarding the high radiation (maximum 1,800 mSv) found at tanks in Fukushima Daiichi NPS on August 31, 2013

We deeply apologize for the great anxiety and inconvenience caused by the recent contaminated water issues at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS, which affects the residents near the power station and the broader society.

Regarding the high radiation (maximum 1,800 mSv) found at tanks in Fukushima Daiichi NPS on August 31, some articles reported that "by simple calculation, if a person is exposed this much radiation amount for four hours continuously, that would lead to death" or "it takes only one minute to reach the annual radiation exposure limit for workers," etc. We would like to explain more about the 1,800 mSv.

We used measuring equipment that measures both beta radiation and gamma radiation. The 1,800 mSv is the total amount of beta radiation and gamma radiation. Gamma radiation was 1 mSv and most of the 1,800 mSv was beta radiation.

Since 1,800 mSv is approximately 3.5 times higher than the control level of equivalent dose for skin which is 500 mSv/year, we should carefully control radiation exposure. Since beta radiation travels only a short distance, radiation level decreases considerably if we keep a distance. Moreover, since beta radiation is weak and can be blocked by a thin metal sheet such as aluminum, we think that we can control radiation exposure by using proper equipments and cloths.

Additionally, although 1,800 mSv was detected at 5 cm above the floor, the radiation level of 50 cm above the floor was 15 mSv. Thus, 1,800 mSv does not mean the radiation level of the whole nearby place.

Some articles reported that "if a person is exposed this much radiation amount for four hours continuously, that would lead to death" comparing with the radiation level that would result in death (7,000 mSv), or "it takes only one minute to reach the annual radiation exposure limit for workers" comparing with the annual radiation exposure limit for workers (50 mSv). However, we believe that simply comparing the 1,800 mSv with those standard levels is not proper, since the standard levels are accumulation of effective dose (not equivalent dose) that express effects for whole body.

We will find out the cause of this issue and make proper counter measures immediately, and continue to make every effort to secure safety of workers.

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/announcements/2013/1230191_5502.html

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari

To have discovered that the radiation levels people are exposed are 18 times more than was reported and try to wave your hands as if that will make it go away, smacks not only of complacency but also of gross and criminal stupidity. Failing to accurately measure the levels of radiation seems to be a feature of TEPCO and their complacency; something certain handwaving people on this forum seem to echo.

Thankfully such handwaving attitudes are part of the reason the international community thinks that an international monitoring team who will do the job properly are needed and it looks now like the Japanese Government agrees with them.

Kind Regards walker

BREAKING NEWS!There is a report that several staff at Fukushima have had to be rushed to hospital in the last 24 hours after complaining of illness, tests at Fukushima show that they need emergency hospital treatment and have been sent to Iwaki Municipal Hospital.

Edited by walker
BREAKING NEWS

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How were they exposed, it's beta radiation? Do you know the difference between beta and gamma? Do you know the difference between effective dose and equivalent dose?

These things do matter, or you end up exaggerating as the press have done. The reports are completely wrong. You will notice that the beta radiation falls off dramatically at 50cm (15 mSv). This is because beta radiation cannot pass easily through air (a few hundred cm) and it is stopped completely by thin materials such as a few mm of metal (it may also be covered by some water). The press reports are for effective dose (whole body) whilst if you look objectively at this you will note that you can only be exposed to significant radiation if you were to stand barefoot on top of the hotspot. It's unlikely to pass through protective boots. Even then it would only affect your feet and give a high equivalent dose (local tissue).

So let me assure you that if you were to stand on the hot spot barefoot for a few hours you would suffer burns to the skin and tissue on the bottom of your feet and have an increased risk of cancer to localised tissue. It would certainly not mean death. For that possibility you would have to bend down and drink it or inhale it or roll in it to cover a substantial surface of the body and leave it there for a time.

For future reference you may panic if someone mentions gamma or neutron emission.

Edited by Mattar_Tharkari

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Hi all

In reply to Mattar_Thakari:

I am fully aware of what the penetration ranges of Alpha Beta and Gama sources are.

Whether it is Beta radiation penetrating into your bone marrow in the long bones of your legs or an Alpha source ingested in to your lungs or a gama source running through your liver the effect on whole body radiation is the same. That is why it is called a whole body doassage and not a torso dossage.

The fact that TEPCO had not even bothered to measure a more accurate full whole body dossage and indeed have been using gama monitors with a maximum capacity reading of 100 m/Sv, just proves that they are guilty of criminal incompetance and complacency. The hand waving fools only the stupid.

Kind Regards walker

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